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Title: Mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis secondary to marginal zone lymphoma in a patient with end-stage renal failure on haemodialysis
Authors: Coorey, Craig Peter;Aarabi, Amirhossein;Kumar, Karthik 
Affliation: Central Coast Local Health District
Gosford Hospital
Issue Date: 6-Oct-2023
Source: Online ahead of print
Journal title: CEN Case Reports
Department: Renal
Abstract: Cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis can present with a variety of symptoms and there is limited data on the incidence and presentation of cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis in haemodialysis patients. We report a case of a 63-year-old male who had a series of presentations with rash, visual changes, abdominal pain, weight loss, fevers and digital ischaemia. This is on a background of a congenital single kidney with end-stage renal failure secondary to diabetes and hypertension, receiving haemodialysis for nearly 5 years. He initially experienced a leukocytoclastic vasculitis rash confirmed on skin biopsy, followed by multiple hospital presentations for undifferentiated abdominal pain and fever of unknown source. Jejunal biopsy revealed intestinal vasculitis. His peripheral blood flow cytometry and bone marrow biopsy were consistent with marginal zone lymphoma (indolent subtype, IgM kappa clone). Further testing revealed a type II cryoglobulinaemia consisting of an IgM kappa monoclonal band with polyclonal IgG (cryocrit 5%). A diagnosis of cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis was established and he was treated with pulsed methylprednisolone and rituximab therapy. However, after receiving three doses of rituximab the patient developed a presumed vasculitis-associated pulmonary haemorrhage for which he received treatment with five sessions of plasma exchange. His symptoms resolved and cryocrit reduced to < 1% after his final dose of rituximab. The clinical features of cryoglobulinaemia may be difficult to detect in chronic haemodialysis patients and vigilance is required.
DOI: 10.1007/s13730-023-00823-5
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Kidney Disease
Study or Trial: Case Series and Case Reports
Appears in Collections:Health Service Research

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