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Title: Computed tomographic angiography measures of coronary plaque in clinical trials: opportunities and considerations to accelerate drug translation
Authors: Howden, Nicklas ;Branch, K;Douglas, P;Gray, M;Budoff, M;Dewey, M;Newby, D E;Nicholls, S J;Blankstein, R;Fathieh, S;Grieve, S M;Figtree, G A
Affliation: Central Coast Local Health District
Gosford Hospital
Issue Date: Mar-2024
Source: 11, 1359500
Journal title: Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine
Department: Cardiology
Abstract: Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is the causal pathological process driving most major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) worldwide. The complex development of atherosclerosis manifests as intimal plaque which occurs in the presence or absence of traditional risk factors. There are numerous effective medications for modifying CAD but new pharmacologic therapies require increasingly large and expensive cardiovascular outcome trials to assess their potential impact on MACE and to obtain regulatory approval. For many disease areas, nearly a half of drugs are approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration based on beneficial effects on surrogate endpoints. For cardiovascular disease, only low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are approved as surrogates for cardiovascular disease. Valid surrogates of CAD are urgently needed to facilitate robust evaluation of novel, beneficial treatments and inspire investment. Fortunately, advances in non-invasive imaging offer new opportunity for accelerating CAD drug development. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is the most advanced candidate, with the ability to measure accurately and reproducibly characterize the underlying causal disease itself. Indeed, favourable changes in plaque burden have been shown to be associated with improved outcomes, and CCTA may have a unique role as an effective surrogate endpoint for therapies that are designed to improve CAD outcomes. CCTA also has the potential to de-risk clinical endpoint-based trials both financially and by enrichment of participants at higher likelihood of MACE. Furthermore, total non-calcified, and high-risk plaque volume, and their change over time, provide a causally linked measure of coronary artery disease which is inextricably linked to MACE, and represents a robust surrogate imaging biomarker with potential to be endorsed by regulatory authorities. Global consensus on specific imaging endpoints and protocols for optimal clinical trial design is essential as we work towards a rigorous, sustainable and staged pathway for new CAD therapies.
DOI: 10.3389/fcvm.2024.1359500
ISSN: 2297-055X
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Cardiology
Heart Disease
Study or Trial: Reviews/Systematic Reviews
Appears in Collections:Cardiology

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