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Title: Primary Pericardial Mesothelioma: A Rare but Serious Consideration
Authors: Seal, Steffan ;Simon, Henry 
Affliation: Central Coast Local Health District
The University of Newcastle
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Source: 13(11):e19966
Journal title: Cureus
Department: Medicine
Abstract: Primary pericardial mesothelioma (PPM) is an extremely rare malignancy with a very poor prognosis. It poses a diagnostic challenge given its often late and non-specific presentation. This report describes a 74-year-old man who presented with central pleuritic chest pain and mild breathlessness. The patient was febrile and mildly tachycardic with crepitations in the right lung base. Blood tests revealed raised inflammatory markers and chest X-ray showed no acute pathology. Following admission, CT pulmonary angiogram showed a large left-sided mediastinal mass (approximately 110 x 70 x 85 mm) centered on the pericardium. Further post venous phase CT imaging identified possible myocardial invasion alongside suspicious liver nodules. Later, outpatient fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging highlighted further FDG avid pleural and liver lesions. CT-guided biopsy of the pericardial lesion was undertaken, with histology and immunohistochemistry indicating epitheliod-type mesothelioma. A significant malignant pericardial effusion was also identified, which ultimately required pericardial window formation. Immunotherapy was commenced utilizing dual nivolumab and ipilimumab, a novel regime for the treatment of mesothelioma. Palliative radiotherapy to the pericardial lesion will also be performed. Here, we demonstrate the diagnostic challenge of this vanishingly rare condition, which is usually diagnosed upon the development of associated complications. Early recognition gives the best chance of improved mortality, however, diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion alongside prompt investigation, primarily involving cross-sectional imaging.
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.19966
ISSN: 2168-8184
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Cardiology
Study or Trial: Case Series and Case Reports
Appears in Collections:Cardiology

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