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Title: Small field detector correction factors: effects of flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators
Authors: Lee, Christopher ;Tyler, M.K.;Liu, P.Z.;McKenzie, D.R.;Suchowerska, N.
Issue Date: May-2016
Source: Volume 17, Issue 3, pp. 223-235
Journal title: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Abstract: Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization chambers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ±0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ±1.6%. Measured diode response was within ±1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ±1.6% is accepted. PACS number(s):,, 87.56.Da.
DOI: 10.1120/jacmp.v17i3.6059
ISSN: 1526-9914
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Radiotherapy
Appears in Collections:Oncology / Cancer

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