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Title: The Gut Microbiome and Cancer Immunotherapy: Can We Use the Gut Microbiome as a Predictive Biomarker for Clinical Response in Cancer Immunotherapy?
Authors: Oh, Byeongsang;Boyle, Frances;Pavlakis, Nick;Clarke, Stephen;Eade, Thomas ;Hruby, George;Lamoury, Gillian;Carroll, Susan;Morgia, Marita;Kneebone, Andrew ;Stevens, Mark ;Liu, Wen;Corless, Brian;Molloy, Mark;Kong, Benjamin;Libermann, Towia;Rosenthal, David;Back, Michael 
Affliation: Central Coast Local Health District
Gosford Hospital
Issue Date: 27-Sep-2021
Source: 13(19):4824
Journal title: Cancers
Department: Radiation Oncology
Abstract: Background: Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota influences the clinical response to immunotherapy. This review of clinical studies examines the relationship between gut microbiota and immunotherapy outcomes. Method: A literature search was conducted in electronic databases Medline, PubMed and ScienceDirect, with searches for "cancer" and "immunotherapy/immune checkpoint inhibitor" and "microbiome/microbiota" and/or "fecal microbiome transplant FMT". The relevant literature was selected for this article. Results: Ten studies examined patients diagnosed with advanced metastatic melanoma (n = 6), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 2), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (n = 1) and one study examined combination both NSCLC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 1). These studies consistently reported that the gut microbiome profile prior to administering immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) was related to clinical response as measured by progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Two studies reported that a low abundance of Bacteroidetes was associated with colitis. Two studies showed that patients with anti-PD-1 refractory metastatic melanoma experienced improved response rates and no added toxicity when receiving fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from patients with anti-PD-1 responsive disease. Conclusions: Overall, significant differences in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome were identified in ICIs responders and non-responders. Our findings provide new insights into the value of assessing the gut microbiome in immunotherapy. Further robust randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the modulatory effects of the gut microbiome and FMT on ICIs in patients not responding to immunotherapy are warranted.
DOI: 10.3390/cancers13194824
ISSN: 2072-6694
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Cancer
Appears in Collections:Oncology / Cancer

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