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Title: The Gut Microbiome and Gastrointestinal Toxicities in Pelvic Radiation Therapy: A Clinical Review
Authors: Back, Michael ;Eade, Thomas ;Kneebone, Andrew ;Oh, B.;Lamoury, G.;Carroll, S.;Morgia, M.;Hruby, G.;Stevens, M.;Boyle, F.;Clarke, S.;Corless, B.;Molloy, M.;Rosenthal, D.
Affliation: Central Coast Local Health District
Gosford Hospital
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: 13(10):2353
Journal title: Cancers
Department: Radiation Oncology
Central Coast Cancer Centre
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities are common adverse effects of pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Several recent studies revealed that toxicity of RT is associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in electronic databases Medline, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, with search terms "microbiome and/or microbiota" and "radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemoradiation therapy (CRT)" and "cancer", and the relevant literature were selected for use in this article. RESULTS: Eight prospective cohort studies were selected for review with a total of 311 participants with a range of 15-134 participants within these studies. The selected studies were conducted in patients with gynaecological (n = 3), rectal (n = 2), or prostate cancers (n = 1), or patients with various types of malignancies (n = 2). Three studies reported that cancer patients had significantly lower alpha diversity compared with healthy controls. Seven studies found that lower alpha diversity and modulated gut microbiome were associated with GI toxicities during and after pelvic RT (n = 5) and CRT (n = 2), whereas one study found that beta diversity was related to a complete response following CRT. Two further studies reported that fatigue was associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and low alpha diversity during and after RT, and with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and diarrhoea, respectively. CONCLUSION: Gut microbiome profiles are associated with GI toxicities and have the potential to predict RT/CRT-induced toxicities and quality of life (QoL) in patients undergoing those treatments. Further robust randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are required to elucidate the effect of gut microbiome profiles on RT-related adverse effects and responses to RT.
ISSN: 2072-6694
Publicaton type: Journal Article
Keywords: Cancer
Study or Trial: Reviews/Systematic Reviews
Appears in Collections:Oncology / Cancer

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